Cardiac failure constitutes the main cause of premature death in FA. While AAV-mediated cardiac gene therapy was shown to fully reverse the cardiac and mitochondrial phenotype in mouse models, this was achieved at high dose of vector resulting in the transduction of almost all cardiomyocytes, a dose and biodistribution that is unlikely to be replicated in clinic. The purpose of this study was to define the minimum vector biodistribution corresponding to the therapeutic threshold, at different stages of the disease progression. Correlative analysis of vector cardiac biodistribution, survival, cardiac function and biochemical hallmarks of the disease revealed that full rescue of the cardiac function was achieved when only half of the cardiomyocytes were transduced. In addition, meaningful therapeutic effect was achieved with as little as 30% transduction coverage. This therapeutic effect was mediated through cell-autonomous mechanisms for mitochondria homeostasis, although a significant increase in survival of uncorrected neighboring cells was observed. Overall, this study identifies the biodistribution thresholds and the underlying mechanisms conditioning the success of cardiac gene therapy in Friedreich Ataxia and provides guidelines for the development of the clinical administration paradigm.
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