This study identified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), complementary to two regions within the first intron of frataxin (FXN) pre-mRNA, which could increase FXN mRNA by ∼2-fold in patient fibroblasts. The increase in FXN mRNA was confirmed by the identification of multiple overlapping FXN-activating ASOs at each region, two independent RNA quantification assays, and normalization by multiple housekeeping genes. Experiments on cells with the ASO-binding sites deleted indicate that the ASO-induced FXN activation was driven by indirect effects. RNA sequencing analyses showed that the two ASOs induced similar transcriptome-wide changes, which did not resemble the transcriptome of wild-type cells. This RNA-seq analysis did not identify directly base-paired off-target genes shared across ASOs. Mismatch studies identified two guanosine-rich motifs (CCGG and G4) within the ASOs that were required for FXN activation. The phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer analogs of the ASOs did not activate FXN, pointing to a PS-backbone-mediated effect. This study demonstrates the importance of multiple, detailed control experiments and target validation in oligonucleotide studies employing novel mechanisms such as gene activation.

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