This paper is a literature search using PubMed with keywords Friedreich's ataxia together with published papers known to the authors to summarize the latest knowledge about FA. The last decade has seen important advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of disease. In particular, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the disease now offer promising novel therapeutic targets. The search for effective disease-modifying agents continues. It remains to be determined whether the most effective approach to treatment lies with increasing frataxin protein levels or addressing the metabolic consequences of the disease, for example with antioxidants. Management of Freidreich's ataxia is currently focussed on symptomatic management, delivered by the multidisciplinary team. Phase II clinical trials in agents that address the abberrant silencing of the frataxin gene need to be translated into large placebo-controlled Phase III trials to help establish their therapeutic potential.
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