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An Overview of the Ferroptosis Hallmarks in Friedreich's Ataxia

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by reduced levels of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein involved in the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, leading to iron accumulation at the mitochondrial level, uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. These features are also common to ferroptosis, an iron-mediated type of cell death triggered by accumulation of lipoperoxides with distinct morphological and molecular characteristics with respect to other known cell deaths. Even though ferroptosis has been associated with various neurodegenerative diseases including FRDA, the mechanisms leading to disease onset/progression have not been demonstrated yet. Here the authors describe the molecular alterations occurring in FRDA that overlap with those characterizing ferroptosis. The study of ferroptotic pathways is necessary for the understanding of FRDA pathogenesis, and anti-ferroptotic drugs could be envisaged as therapeutic strategies to cure FRDA.

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