Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters rank among the most ancient and conserved prosthetic groups. Fe-S clusters containing proteins are present in most, if not all, organisms. Fe-S clusters containing proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, from gene regulation to central metabolism, via gene expression, RNA modification or bioenergetics. Fe-S clusters are built by biogenesis machineries conserved throughout both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This group focuses mostly on bacterial ISC machinery, but not exclusively, as they refer to eukaryotic ISC system when it brings significant complementary information. Besides covering the structural and regulatory aspects of Fe-S biogenesis, this review aims to highlight Fe-S biogenesis facets remaining matters of discussion, such as the role of frataxin, or the link between fatty acid metabolism and Fe-S homeostasis. Last, This review discusses recent advances on strategies used by different species to make and use Fe-S clusters in changing redox environmental conditions.
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