This work studies the stability of wild-type frataxin and some of its variants found in cancer tissues upon Co2+ binding. Although the physiologically involved metal ion in the frataxin enzymatic activity is Fe2+, Co2+ is most often used in experiments because Fe2+ is extremely unstable owing to the fast oxidation reaction Fe2+ → Fe3+. Protein stability is monitored following the conformational changes induced by Co2+ binding as measured by circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and melting temperature measurements. The stability ranking among the wild-type frataxin and its variants obtained in this way is confirmed by a detailed comparative analysis of the XAS spectra of the metal-protein complex at the Co K-edge. In particular, a fit to the EXAFS region of the spectrum allows to positively identify the frataxin acidic ridge as the most likely location of the metal-binding sites. Furthermore, the surprising feature emerging from a detailed analysis of the XANES region of the spectrum can be explained by the fact that the longer 81-210 frataxin fragment has a smaller propensity for Co2+ binding than the shorter 90-210 one. This fact is explained by the peculiar role of the N-terminal disordered tail in modulating the protein ability to interact with the metal.

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