The regenerative potential of stem cells drew the attention of researchers to cell-based therapy for treating neurodegenerative diseases. The clinical application of stem cells may help to substitute new cells and overcome the inability of the endogenous repairing system to repair the damaged brain. However, the clinical application of induced pluripotent stem cells is restricted due to the risk of tumor formation by residual undifferentiated cells upon transplantation. In this focused review, the authors briefly discussed different stem cells currently being studied for therapeutic development. Moreover, they present supporting evidence for the utilization of stem cell therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Also, the authors described the key issues that should be considered to transplantation of stem cells for different neurodegenerative diseases. In conclusion, the authors suggest that stem cell therapy probably would be the only treatment strategy that offers a cure for neurodegenerative disease, although further studies are required to identify ideal stem cells candidates, dosing and the ideal method of cell transplantation. The authors suggest that all grafted cells would be transgenically armed with a molecular kill-switch that could be activated in the event of adverse side effects.

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